S. Kohler, P. Jarrige, N. Ticaud, R. P. O’Connor, L. Duvillaret, G. Gaborit, D. Arnaud-Cormos, Member, IEEE, and P. Leveque, Member, IEEE
High intensity nanosecond pulsed electric fields and temperature were simultaneously measured using a unique electrooptic (EO) probe. The measurements were performed in an electroporation cuvette with 4 mm electrode gap and filled with a buffered salt solution. High voltage generators delivering 2.6 and 10 ns duration pulses with different pulses shape and intensity were investigated. The EO probe linearity was characterized up to 2 MV/m. The temperature measurement uncertainty was found to be less than 22 mK. Excellent measurement abilities were achieved with this EO probe showing its suitability for bioelectromagnetic experiments and particularly for wideband high intensity field applications. Index Terms—Electro-optic (EO) probe, finite difference time domain (FDTD), temperature measurement, vectorial electromagnetic field measurements.
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have gained considerable attention in the recent years due to their great potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and environment . Recently, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) have been the subject of intense investigation. These high intensity (0.5–30 MV/m) pulses in the tens-of-nanoseconds range (4–300 ns) have been shown to impact both cell functions and structure . The knowledge of the physical parameters, such as electric field (E-field) and temperature, is of great importance when PEF are applied to biological samples. Indeed, significant Joule heating can arise and damage the biological cells or tissues under critical exposure conditions of E-field strength and repetition rate , . For this reason, the simultaneous measurement of the E-field and temperature can be highly advantageous to monitor bioexperiments protocol.
Bioelectromagnetic investigations are challenging because they are typically conducted in very small volume. They require the development of specific probes such as for in-vivo permittivity measurements of biological tissues .
IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 3, MARCH 2012